February 25, 2017

Conflicts in the Middle East since 1945 - 2nd Edition (The by Milton-Edwards, Peter Hinchcliffe

By Milton-Edwards, Peter Hinchcliffe

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Extra resources for Conflicts in the Middle East since 1945 - 2nd Edition (The Making of the Contemporary World)

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The war had exacerbated the instability of an already unstable Middle East, had frustrated American ambitions in the region, and hit the US economy through the oil embargo announced by Arab oil producers. An OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) increase in oil prices of several hundred per cent, plus the total embargo against the US announced by Saudi Arabia and other Arab oil producers on 19 October, was intended to achieve a number of goals, with the resolution of the Palestinian issue among them.

Such was the tragic end of the first phase of the Lebanon war. 13 For eighteen years Israel remained in Lebanon and promoted its presence through its local ally, the Christian-led SLA. United Nations forces, mandated in 1978 to act as peacekeepers until Israel withdrew, found themselves embroiled in various battles between Lebanon’s militias and the SLA and IDF. Israel’s northern border remained vulnerable to attack and domestic pressure grew for an end to Israel’s Lebanon experience. As Israeli casualty rates rose the country’s political leaders responded.

Egypt regained the Sinai, lost the respect of the rest of the Arab world and was regarded as an outcast. The Palestinians gained nothing from the peace treaty – not that they had sought anything. The Israelis promised unspecific long-term considerations for granting Palestinian autonomy. In the meantime Israeli concerns focused on the Palestinian threat both within and outside their borders; more specifically the escalation of fedayeen attacks from the southern area of Lebanon then termed ‘Fatahland’.

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